Monday, October 28, 2019
Role of Banks in the Economic Development Essay Example for Free
Role of Banks in the Economic Development Essay Bank: An organization, usually a corporation, chartered by a state or federal government, which does most or all of the following: receives demand deposits and time deposits, honors instruments drawn on them, and pays interest on them; discounts notes, makes loans, and invests in securities; collects checks,drafts, and notes; certifies depositors checks; and issues drafts and cashiers checks. Features of Bank: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Money Dealing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Acceptance of Deposit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Grant of loan and advances Ã¢â¬ ¢ Payment and withdrawal of deposits Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transfer of funds Ã¢â¬ ¢ Portfolio management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Foreign Exchange dealing Banking; In general terms, the business activity of accepting and safeguarding money owned by other individuals and entity and then lending out this money in order to earn a profit. Banking is a business of accepting deposits and lending money. It is carried out by financial intermediaries, which performs the functions of safeguarding deposits and providing loans to the public. In other words, Banking means accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from public repayable on demand and can be withdrawn by checks, draft order and so on. Banking Company: Any company, which transacts the business of banking Banking System: Banking System is a principal mechanism through which the money supply of the country is created and controlled. The banking system enables us to understand Commercial Banks, Secondary Banks, Central Banks, Merchant Bank or Accepting Houses and Discount Houses but to exclude the Saving Banks and Investment and other intermediaries. Number and types of Banks: The number of banks in all now stands at 49 in Bangladesh. Out of the 49 banks, four are Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), 28 local private commercial banks, 12 foreign banks and the rest five are Development Financial Institutions (DFIs). Sonali Bank is the largest among the NCBs while Pubali is leading in the private ones. Among the 12 foreign banks, Standard Chartered has become the largest in the country. Besides the scheduled banks, Samabai (Cooperative) Bank, Ansar-VDP Bank, Karmasansthan (Employment) Bank and Grameen bank are functioning in the financial sector. The number of total branches of all scheduled banks is 6,038 as of June 2000. Of the branches, 39.95 per cent (2,412) are located in the urban areas and 60.05 per cent (3,626) in the rural areas. Of the branches NCBs hold 3,616, private commercial banks 1,214, foreign banks 31 and specialized banks 1,177. Bangladesh Bank (BB) regulates and supervises the activities of all banks. The BB is now carrying out a reform program to ensure quality services by the banks. Commercial Bank: A bank offering checking accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, personal and business loans, and other, similar services. Commercial banks charge fees and/or interest for many of their services, though they may pay interest on other services. A retail bank is often an individual branch of a commercial bank where one may procure these services. The main functions of commercial banks: The main functions of commercial banks are accepting deposits from the public and advancing them loans. However, besides these functions there are many other functions which these banks perform. All these functions can be divided under the following heads: 1. Accepting Deposits: The most important function of commercial banks is to accept deposits from the public. Various sections of society, according to their needs and economic condition, deposit their savings with the banks. For example, fixed and low income group people deposit their savings in small amounts from the points of view of security, income and saving promotion. On the other hand, traders and businessmen deposit their savings in the banks for the convenience of payment. 3. Over-Draft: Banks advance loans to its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s up-to a certain amount through over-drafts, if there are no deposits in the current account. For this banks demand a security from the customers and charge very high rate of interest. 4. Discounting of Bills of Exchange: This is the most prevalent and important method of advancing loans to the traders for short-term purposes. Under this system, banks advance loans to the traders and business firms by discounting their bills. In this way, businessmen get loans on the basis of their bills of exchange before the time of their maturity. 5. Investment of Funds: The banks invest their surplus funds in three types of securitiesÃ¢â¬âGovernment securities, other approved securities and other securities. Government securities include both, central and state governments, such as treasury bills, national savings certificate etc. Other securities include securities of state associated bodies like electricity boards, housing boards, debentures of Land Development Banks units of UTI, shares of Regional Rural banks etc. 6. Agency Functions: Banks function in the form of agents and representatives of their customers. Customers give their consent for performing such functions. The important functions of these types are as follows: 1. Banks collect checks, drafts, bills of exchange and dividends of the shares for their customers. 2. Banks make payment for their clients and at times accept the bills of exchange: of their customers for which payment is made at the fixed time. 3. Banks pay insurance premium of their customers. Besides this, they also deposit loan installments, income-tax, interest etc. as per directions. 4. Banks purchase and sell securities, shares and debentures on behalf of their customers. 5. Banks arrange to send money from one place to another for the convenience of their customers. 7. Miscellaneous Functions: Besides the functions mentioned above, banks perform many other functions of general utility which are as follows: 1. Banks make arrangement of lockers for the safe custody of valuable assets of their customers such as gold, silver, legal documents etc. 2. Banks give reference for their customers. 3. Banks collect necessary and useful statistics relating to trade and industry. 4. For facilitating foreign trade, banks undertake to sell and purchase foreign exchange. 5. Banks advise their clients relating to investment decisions as specialist 6. Bank does the under-writing of shares and debentures also. 7. Banks issue letters of credit. 8. During natural calamities, banks are highly useful in mobilizing funds and donations. 9. Banks provide loans for consumer durables like Car, Air-conditioner, and Fridge etc. Central Bank: The entity responsible for overseeing the monetary system for a nation (or group of nations). Central banks have a wide range of responsibilities, from overseeing monetary policy to implementing specific goals such as currency stability, low inflation and full employment. Central banks also generally issue currency, function as the bank of the government, regulate the credit system, oversee commercial banks, manage exchange reserves and act as a lender of last resort. Function of Central Bank: In the monetary and banking setup of a country, central bank occupies central position and perhaps, it is because of this fact that this called as the central bank. In this way, this bank works as an institution whose main objective is to control and regulate money supply keeping in view the welfare of the people. Central bank is an institution that fulfills the credit needs of banks and other credit institution, which woks as banker to the banks and the government and which work for the economic interest of the country. 1. Monopoly of note issue: Note issue primarily is the main function of a central bank in every country. These days, in all the countries where there is a central bank generally it has got the monopoly of the sole right of note issue. In the beginning this was not the function of central bank, but gradually all the central bank gas acquires this function. There are many advantages of the note issue by central banks some important ones are as follow: 1. Central bank controls the credit creating power of commercial bank. By controlling the amount of currency in circulation, the volume of credit can be controlled to quite a large extent. 2. People have more confidence in the currency issued by the control bank because it has the protection and recognition of the government. 3. In the event of monopoly of note issue of central bank, there will be uniformity in the currency system in the country. 4. The currency of the country will be flexible if the central bank of the country has the monopoly of note issue because central bank can bring about changes very early in the volume of paper money according to the needs of business, industry and messes. 5. The system of note issue has some advantages. If the central bank of the country has the monopoly of note issue, all such advantages will accrue to the government. 2. Bankers, Agent and Adviser to the Government: As banker to the government, central bank provides all those service and facilities to the government which public gets from the ordinary banks. It operates the account of the public enterprise. It mangers government departmental undertaking and government funds and where there is a need gives loan to the government. From time to time, central bank advice the government on monetary, banking and financial matters. 3. Custodian of Cash Reserve of Commercial Bank: Central bank is the bank of banks. This signifies that it has the same relationship with the commercial banks in the country that they gave with their customers. It provides security to their cash reserves, give them loan at the time of need, gives them advice on financial and economic matter and work as clearing house among various members bank. 4. Custodian of NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Reserve of International: Central bank is the custodian of the foreign currency obtained from various countries. This has become an important function of central bank. These days, because with its help it can stabilize the external value of the currency. 5. Lender of The Last Resort: Central bank works as lender of the last resort for commercial banks because in the time of need it provides them financial assistance and accommodation. Whenever a commercial bank faces financial crisis, central bank as lender of the last resort comes to its rescue by advancing loans and the bank is saved from being failed. 6. Clearing House Function: All commercial bank have their accounts with the central bank. Therefore, central bank settles the mutual transactions of banks and thus saves all banks controlling each other individually for setting their individual transaction. 7. Credit Control: These days, the most important function of a central bank is to control the volume of credit for bringing about stability in the general price level and accomplishing various other socio economic objectives. The significance of this function has increased so much that for property understanding it. The central bank has acquired the rights and powers of controlling the entire banking. A central bank can adopt various quantitative and qualitative methods for credit control such as bank rate, open market operation, changes in reserve ratio selective controls, moral situation etc. Other functions Besides the 7 functions explained above, central banks perform many other functions that are as follows: 8. Collection of Data: Central banks in almost all the countries collects statistical data regularly relating to economic aspects of money, credit, foreign exchange, banking etc. from time to time, committees and commission are appointed for studying various aspects relating to the aforesaid problem. 9. Central Banking in Developing Countries: The basic problem of underdeveloped countries is the problem of lack of capital formation whose main causes are lack of saving and investment. Therefore, central bank can play an important role by promoting capital formation through mobilizing saving s and encouraging investment. Role of banks in the Economic development: There should be no anonymity as about the importance of Banking in the Economic development of a developing country like Bangladesh. Banks performs some vital role that are conducive to economic development are as follows:- 1. To create generate capital market. 2. To play effective role in the Economy by supplying capital. 3. To persuade quench, bill of exchange etc. for easy mode of exchange 4. Financing of industries. 5. Financing of Trade and Commerce and rendering services to its chants. 6. Financing of Agriculture. 7. To maintain balance of foreign trade and to check price hike in the market by controlling credit.