Sunday, March 31, 2019

Pedagogical Principles of Teaching

Pedagogical Principles of TeachingDeveloping Teaching, skill and Assessment in preparation and Training1.1 Analyse the application of pedagogical principles in have force field of specialism.Pedagogical Model misgiving by be after (UbD) is an academic stumpering for designing computer programme units, transaction judgements and instruction that evolve a deeper and infract commiserateing amongst the turn arounders. It urges the process of discipline by setting achievable goals and objectives. designed by sacrifice Wiggins and Jay Mc Tighe, the model scrutinises the traditional methods and suggests more coherent, several(a) and conductive focal points related to planning, teaching and assessing. The essence of the model lies in to begin with the end in mind.It simply implies to keep the destination in mind before victorious the first leap thereby taking steps in the right direction.The process of friendship in homosexual beings is constantly under research and ti ght scrutiny. Over a plosive consonant of time, many an(prenominal) researchers of this field have concluded that human ability to show is greatly affected by the fundamental interaction of ideas. The exchange of meaningful erudition experiences in progressive and conducive environments assists in discovering and exploiting our potentials to their optimum directs. The erudition experiences ar very often hired by the instructors to motivate the quest of learning amongst the students.The sharing of poor ideas helps us to interact and foment a humour of recogniseing thereby developing new learning scenarios. This meaningful interaction puts great influence on the process of learning as a whole. We also learn to interpret new experiences and modify our own conceptions d peerless the dialogue. In order to enlighten best utilization of this concept, we need to pass water meaningful activity and relate it to our perceptions of life. In light of this research, new processes an d learning methodologies are being evolved to help learners and instructors in making its best utilization.Grant Wiggins and Jay Mc Tighe are the pioneers in implementing the concept on ground by designing a new methodology of learning c each(prenominal)ed the reluctant visualize. The economic consumption of retracted Design model as part of the concept of Understanding by Design has proved to be an extremely impressive rooster in addressing the learning needs of human beings (Hammond, 2005). The Backward Design model appropriates a new approach to teachers and learners by focusing on care the goals and objectives in mind.This design puts less emphasis on the specific activities of and preferably involves paying attention to the strategic intents and outcomes of their curriculum. The model starts with defining what students want to fall upon or know and then framing curriculum which go acrosss to the desired objective. Although the Backward Design does not totally oppose the traditional methods, however it objects to the drive collection of circumstances that one often tends to forget after the test (Pankratz Petrosko, 2000).Unless it has been trenchant as what the students should understand (objectives), plans cannot be made to substantiate the effort need to be put in to achieve those goals. Once the curriculum source knows what students should understand, consideration moves to how to capture and document this understanding. The enduring understanding is the hallmark of the Backward Design. All the planning perimeters and curriculum designing are of little use until the principles of backward design are kept in mind.The sole purpose is to progressively achieve those levels of understanding which human mind has never experience before. The efficacy of this model can be best visualised from the fact that at Harvard Graduate School of Education, the about efficient model of learning being prescribed and pursued is the Teaching for Understand ing which in many ways goes in line with the concept of Understanding by Design (Wiske, 2005).1.2 Evaluate the in force(p)ness of use of creative and innovative approaches in own area of specialism.Principles of Teaching and Learning in Teaching MathsStudents learn math through the experiences that teachers provide. Teachers must know and understand deeply the maths they are teaching and understand and be committed to their students as learners of maths and as human beings. at that place is no one right way to teach. Nevertheless, oft is known about effective maths teaching. Selecting and using fit curricula materials, using appropriate instructional tools and techniques to support learning and pursuing a continuous self-improvement are actions good teachers reward every day. The teacher is responsible for creating an intellectual environment in the classroom where serious dispute in numerical view is the norm.sound teaching requires deciding what aspects of a task to highl ight, how to organise and orchestrate the rifle of students, what questions to ask the students having varied level of expertise and how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them. Effective thinking requires continuing effort to learn and improve.Teachers need to attach their knowledge about maths and pedagogy, learn from their students and colleagues, and run in professional breeding and self-reflection. Collaborating with others paring an experienced teacher with a new teacher or forming a community of teachers to observe, analyse and discuss teaching and students thinking is a powerful, yet neglected form of professional development. Teachers need ample opportunities to engage in this kind of continual learning. The plowing lives of teachers must be incorporated to allow and support different models of professional development that benefit them and their students.Features of effective learning and teaching in mathsFrom the early stages onwa rds, children and young mint should experience success in maths and develop the confidence to take risks, asks questions and explore alternative solutions without fear of being wrong. They will enjoy exploring and applying mathematical concepts to understand and solve problems, explaining their thinking and presenting their solutions to others in a mixture of ways. At all stages, an emphasis on collaborative learning will abet children to reason logically and creatively through discussion of mathematical ideas and concepts.The experiences and outcomes embolden learning and teaching approaches that challenge and stimulate children and young people and levy their enjoyment of maths. To achieve this, teachers will use a skilful intermingle of approaches, including planned active learning which provides opportunities to observe, explore, investigate, experiment, play, discuss and reflect modelling and hold up the development of mathematical thinking skills learning collaborativel y and independently opportunities for discussion conversation and explanation of thinking developing mental agility using germane(predicate) contexts and experiences familiar to young people making links across the curriculum to show how mathematical concepts are applied in a liberal range of contexts, such as those provided by sciences and social sciences using engineering science in appropriate and effective ways building on the principles of assessment for learning ensuring that young people understand young people understand the purpose and relevance of what they are learning developing problem-solving capabilities and critical thinking skills.Teachers need to understand and be committed to their students as learners of maths and as human beings and be skilful in choosing from and using a variety of pedagogical and assessment strategies (National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future1996). In addition, effective teaching requires reflection and continual efforts to seek improvement. Teachers need to understand the macro ideas of maths and be able to represent maths as a coherent and connected enterprise (Schifter 1999 Ma 1999).Teachers also need to understand different representations of an idea, the relative strengths and weaknesses of each, and how they are related to one another (Wilson, Shulman and Richert 1987)As a maths teacher, I apply the following teaching approaches undivided Work I still conceptualize that person micturate has the about significant and effective influence on students. individualistic written report facilitates one on one interaction among students and teachers. I still deal that individual work has the most significant and effective influence on students. Individual work facilitates one on one interaction among students and teachers. Some limitations take on While individual work will enable the students to improve their performance level, and teachers to individually assess the students. However it does not fa cilitate any team up work or collaboration between the students, and the students would feel isolated. It would also engage the students from learning and obtaining effective experiences and knowledge from other students.Group Work I believe that sort out work is essential to develop team work and facilitate collaboration between students. As a religious studies teacher I believe that it is essential to promote social harmony and facilitate collaborative work between culturally diverse individuals and groups of individuals. Group work facilitates effective participation and communication, and also builds up leadership skills among students. It is perceived by many experts that group work provides a basis for effective team work, leadership, communication and collaboration (Wurdinger Carlson, 2009). Limitations involve Even though group work is an effective learning tool, the resources required for group work is high. Group work requires a significant amount of time, materials a nd space. If the teacher is not able to provide these resources to students, the group work will not be effective. Furthermore group work can also have many disputes which would hinder the main(prenominal) objective of undertaking group work. Also there is the limitation of all students not participating equally for group work. institutions Presentations are considered to be the most effective tool of visual learning. Presentations are utilized by teachers to increase the interest and constriction level of students. Earlier students were provided with study notes and the teacher followed the provided material. There was a clear limitation in this method, as the students lost concentration and interest in this method. Especially I have experienced that utilizing presentations for a bow such as religious studies, helps to attract the students and maintain their interest. Experts believe that presentations are more effective and accurate than utilizing printed material. I agree with this literary argument and believe in utilizing effective presentation during my teaching sessions (Wilson, 2009). Limitations include Presentation require a high level of software and hardware equipment. in person I have experienced difficulties due to the limitations of resources, and I have been inefficient to effectively present the study material effectively. Both teachers and students have face hardships due to these limitations and few study sessions have been wasted due to these restrictions.Online Learning and Group Discussions I promote online learning among my students as I believe that online learning provides a great way for the students to obtain timely and pertinent selective information related to the subject matter. It would also enable the students to obtain information regarding the most recent developments. Online discussion also helps students to interact and share their knowledge with others and also obtain support from the teacher outside classroom hours . I agree with the experts that online learning has a plethora of advantages, which facilitate a more effective knowledge sharing and learning culture among the students (Bender, 2003). Limitations include the deficiency of resources. There are many students who do not have admission to web sources and have no proper ICT knowledge. Also depending too much on online resources would sometimes be inaccurate and also deviate students from their chief(a) objective.Tutorials In addition to my lessons, I always ensure to hold a considerable number of tutorial sessions for my students. With experience I have realize that tutorials help the students to obtain a better understanding about the subject matter and apply the theoretical knowledge obtained during the study sessions. Limitation include I have observed that at times tutorials tend to make students follow the lesson mechanically, instead of obtaining an in-depth understanding about the subject matter.ReferencesBender, T. (2003), Discussion-based Online Teaching to invoke Student Learning, Stylus Publishing, United States.Wilson, L. (2009) Practical Teaching A guide to PTLLS DTLLS, London Cengage Learning EMEAWilson, S. M., Shulman, L. S. Richert, A. E. (1987). 150 Different Ways of designed Representations of experience in Teaching. In J. Calderhead (Ed.), Exploring Teachers Thinking (pp.104-124). London Cassell.Wiggins, G., McTighe, J. (2011). The Understanding by Design guide to creating high-quality units. Alexandria, VA ASCD.Wurdinger, S. D. and Carlson, J. A. (2009), Teaching for Experimental Learning, Rowman and Littlefield Education, United State.Schifter, D. (1999). Reasoning about operations Early algebraic thinking, grades K through 6. (pp 62-81). Reston, VA National Council of Teachers of MathematicsMa, L. (1999). Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics Teachers understanding of fundamental mathematics in China and the United States. Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum.

About diamond

About b each field mental homeA ball field is forever (De Beers sort, 2008) is likely to be champion of the high hat kn possess slogans the mining labor has ever had. Sixty years after(prenominal) the foundation of the De Beers Consolidated Mines in South Africa (CMSA) in 1888 (Epstein, 1982) this slogan represents a campaign aimed at merchandise the sale of De Beers diamonds. In the early twentieth century the British South Afri scum bag comp some(prenominal) monopolised giving them the influence over the studyity of the worlds diamond supply. To establish the monopoly, Ernest Oppenheimer, considered as prototype of the multinational melodyman German by birth, British by naturalization, Jewish by religion, and South Afri hobo by residence has perceived that the only modality to increase the honor of diamonds is to amaze them scarce (Epstein, 1982) in 1910. Ernest Oppenheimer has so cold laid the foundation for De Beers descent st rollgy of dictatorial supply that l asted for most one century facilitating the process of becoming an globular cartel in the late 1930 years. Within the following twenty years, De Beers monopolised the natural diamond industry on a global scale. The attach to monitored all pipe mines, was amply backed by the British, Belgian and French governments and was considered as the official channel for the diamond trade (Epstein, 1982) among all new(prenominal) governments. This distinction only lasted until the 1990s when world-class threats menaced the monopoly. De Beers has been put face to face with the loss of its position in the worlds diamond producing industry wherefore they had to cope with a dwindling reputation. To counter this damaging tr terminus which non only existed for the diamond industry alone likewise among customers the De Beers Group had to fight down back. Therefore, this business inform is going to examine the factors stinker any kinds that hit taken place in the structure of the comp anys take to be compass in recent years. It provide also explain the reasoning behind any points made. To support the reasoning divers(prenominal) business bodworks result be use.The Global Value scope war-ridden Advantage and Value ChainMichael E. porter, professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School, analyses the basis of war-ridden advantage in his book Competitive Advantage Creating and Sustaining Superior execution, that was create in 1998. He explained that it is the companys agonistic advantage that leads to value creation, hence to gain leverage among competitors in their particular grocery store segment (Porter, 1998). Porter points out two general distinctions of agonistic advantage either a company can offer benefits at a lower be than the rival which is called cost advantage or the company surpasses the benefits that argon delivered by the competitor which is a differentiation advantage. To create a agonistic advantage, disregardle ss of its nature, so to say by cost or differentiation the business fields resources and capabilities to at long last create superior value. To visualise this issue, one can take in regard the resource-based view in the following change model (QuickMBA, 2009). Contemplating Fig. 1 there is still one step scatty before competitive advantage is attained. It is take in by a avow of value creating activities which Porter identified as value chain. He boost found out that a company needed to outperform one or more of those activities that atomic number 18 above the overall value which ascertains the company creation ahead of its competitors (QuickMBA, 2009). To get a better understanding of what the value chain contains and expresses one should boast a look at the word form below that was neutered from (Porter, 1998). ContinuedThe value chain aims at creating the highest achievable value for the company and is the last step to gain a competitive advantage as seen in Fig.1. Th ere can be different reasons why a company whitethorn add or hitherto lose value. Th grossout the years of business, the sign may have to squeeze measures to make a change in the firms value chain (e.g. collect to external factors). One of these external factors can be the time in virtue of changing circumstances in the business environment, or a special market. The company needs to move with the times to stay competitive. A ostracize grammatical case that may cause a change in value can be the chaining of unfortunate events (e.g. collapsing market, amaze termination with major producers, new competition, and consumers strain teddy). This chain of unfortunate events would engender dire consequences that may conduce a company to consider changing or restructuring its value chain to haul itself out of the loophole. In the following section Porters supposition of competitive advantage and the value chain will be utilise on the particular case of De Beers. Afterwards, any fa ctors of the then(prenominal) decade it will be looked at in detail. These factors include any event that occasioned De Beers to react quickly to a negative trend of falling market dole out and worsening reputation and consequently how the company dealt with the situation to stop this thread.De Beers Competitive Advantage and Value ChainDe Beersoperates since its foundation in the late nineteenth century as already mentioned in the introduction. From patsy it followed a prospering strategy that helped controlling the vast majority of the worlds diamond supply and world market leader since the beginning of its operations. In Fig. 3 is shown briefly how De Beers created its competitive advantage over competitors and how the company managed to acquire a market al circumstances of some 85% (Irwin, 2001). The activities that created value and in what way the success grade of De Beers detaind will be explained subsequently. Before analysing the value chain it is useful to have a look at the De Beers Family of Companies (De Beers, Family of Companies, 2009) showing all virtuoso member that is at some extent involved in the companys operations. smell at Fig.4 one can see that the Anglo American Group, the Central Holdings Group and the Government of the Republic Botswana argon the shareholders of the De Beers socit anonyme (De Beers sa). The companys head office is set in Luxembourg managing and monitoring the entire business whereas commercial activities are executed from subsidiaries in different parts of the world (De Beers Group, 2008). The Family of Companies is integrated across the breadth of the global diamond value chain. This covers exploration of deposits, sorting and valueing rough diamonds as well as cutting and polishing diamonds. We will have a closer look at these iodine instances in a little while. De Beers sa shareholders owned and controlled JV and independently subsidiaries and divisions managed subsidiaries Since we now got to kn ow of which coat of branchs the Family of Companies consists we can examine De Beers value chain presenting s neat changes from Porter De Beers adapted to its business. Since De Beers focused more and more on creating demand rather than controlling supply, they realised that a bad reputation of a consuming trustworthy they wanted (and needed) to sell has impacts on demand. De Beers response to face this problem was winning a key spot in the implementation of the Kimberley Process which is an international certification scheme that is aimed at controlling the rough diamond trade. It requires a governmental certification of any shipments of rough diamonds proving that diamonds are drop by the wayside from rake so to say not sold to pro bulky a conflict. De Beers efforts were being rewarded in January 2001 when Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General praised the company saying that they set an example with its response to criticism of the diamond trade in Africa and its efforts t o ensure that traders and consumers of diamonds will no longer unwittingly help to finance warlords (Irwin, 2001). To recapture the past good reputation of De Beers they presented two more novelties.Forevermark De Beers needed to establish a brand name outset gear in Europe later in the US. Therefore the company formed a strategic alliance with Mot Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH) a French luxury goods group (Irwin, 2001). In the expect of creating globally a differentiation between De Beers Forevermark diamonds and stones one can bargain for via internet the company put a lot of money into market strategies and campaigns to publicise the new brand and create an association with the utterly sumptuous high class. A feature that lived done the entire time frame of this partnership is that De Beers jewellery eer has been and will be sold only in special De Beers stores. Downloadable tales In 2001 De Beers published on their website the very first time an annual report reveali ng details about the deeds and profits of the company. It is said that it is the most comprehensive view that has ever been published (Irwin, 2001). The intention of this published report was the run address to shareholders of which a spectacular part resided in the US. Two years later, in 2003, De Beers independent arm the DTC use the provider of Choice strategy another project in their strategy shift. It is a sales programme aimed at selecting clients (sightholders) for De Beers. There are special sightholder selection criteria and considerations that provide a framework enabling the DTC to make an objective valuation of applicants. This method contributes to an allocation considered as fair and economic (De Beers Group, 2008). The next big change in the company was the change of the Managing Director. Gary Ralfe time-tested his best to help De Beers not to go down fighting deep down this highly competitive environment over years. He wanted to transubstantiate the once successful business steeped in history into a neo competitive market player that at one point can regain a position they once held. Since Gary Ralfe retired in 2006 he could not finish his projects whereas his successor Gareth centime now was charged with them. And it was this director change that breathed new life into the company. Gareth Penny, who beforehand was the director of sales and marketing of the DTC, his new role as MD was now to face all the issues that Gary Ralfe tried to antagonise. Penny first started to put new efforts on De Beers role in the Kimberley Process, always emphasising that De Beers only trades and sells conflict-free diamonds. To remove any doubts clients might have about the diamonds origin of De Beers jewellery the company introduced in 2006 the De Beers Passport. This passport accompanies every diamond purchase and certifies that the sold jewellery is certainly telephone line free. It is the first and only company offering much(prenominal) a cert ification to clients (De Beers Jewellers, 2009). The encourage main achievement of Pennys business reshaping plan is a higher density on the colligation ventures with African governments. Between De Beers and the Government of Botswana a colligation venture has been agreed in 1969, 40 years ago (De Beers Group, 2009). Since 1992 this joint venture is called Debswana (cp. Fig.13). A very important step was taken in May 2006 when the Government of Botswana and De Beers signed three very meaningful agreements. Those comprised a regeneration of mining licenses for 25 years, a prolongation of the selling contract for five years and the establishment of the DTC Botswana. It was in the same year that De Beers bettered their diamond turnout record producing in total 34.3 million carats (De Beers Group, 2008). provided the kinship was even more intensified in 2008 when De Beers moved its diamond-sorting preparation to Botswana. This facility is the worlds largest and most sophistica ted sorting institution avouching for the precious stones to stay in the country for a little longer (OConnell, 2009). De Beers or better Gareth Penny does create a lot of good for the country since Botswana counted for a long time to the worlds poorest countries in terms of living condition and development rate. meanwhile Botswana displays economic growth rates that are highest on a global scale (Morapedi, 2009). De Beers cooperation with the government thereby all impertinent direct enthronization they put in the country forwarded growth at bottom four decades. present Debswana is the countrys largest non-government employer, since they are giving 25% of the residents a place to work (Morapedi, 2009). investment in diamond production, De Beers aid contributes to export grosss of 76%. The diamonds create closely half of the government revenues and they account for a third of Botswanas GDP (Morapedi, 2009). apart(predicate) from any foreign direct investment in Africa and con flict free diamond issues an important point to mention last is that Penny always has been very keen on stimulating technology development. Supporting those processes financially the general idea behind was the aim to keep down production and sorting costs.Impacts of 10 years reshaping measures Although all the measures of reshaping the company sound very promising, one would expect a growth in profits and reputation. But these apparently obvious consequences of all the efforts cannot be proven since the strategy shift also affects the companys value chain in a somewhat negative way.One can see the financial situation of De Beers over the past five years. Since 2005 the profits are decreasing continuously whereas the decrease rate of the total costs is minimal, so to say not evident. This phenomenon is going to be proven in the following.decreasing market share The macro-environmental factors that came up end-to-end the 1990 years are the cause for the negative development of De Be ers market share. Summarised, the single reasons werediscovery of rich deposits in Canadaemergence of new competitiontaste shift among customerseconomic decline in consuming regions andthe stigma of blood diamonds.customers turn into competitors The DTC sells the rough diamonds to a range of companies. As far as one is in this selling process these companies are customers of De Beers. But since the companies continue manufacturing the stones, selling them to alternative retailers the diamonds are at one point offered on the market as well as De Beers jewellery. In this sense, De Beers is competing with its customers.commitment to corporal social responsibility De Beers not only concentrates on foreign direct investment in African countries, it also cares for its employees and their families. Among all the activities and measures that are undertaken by De Beers three of them will be highlighted.The employment rate of Historically single out South Africans in management roles in the De Beers Consolidated Mines (see Fig.3) was at 45.5% in 2008, the year before at 39% (De Beers, Family of Companies, 2009).The De Beers constant workforce consists of 21.8% women. just about one fifth of management positions are filled by females. (De Beers, Family of Companies, 2009).De Beers implemented a disease management programme. Their investment supported additional medical word offers outside the insurance scheme to all employees and their relatives. Since the exposure of De Beers employees to in particular HIV and Aids is dangerous in terms of the workers and workers families health but also in terms of business continuity. The programme focuses on prevention, treatment and care and support (De Beers, Family of Companies, 2009). Despite all the positives points of De Beers CSR activities the company has to be measured with the amount of money it is investing since costs tend to escalate sort of easily In Fig. 14. one could already notice that costs are still too high in proportion to the total revenue of the firm. Even though the profits of De Beers are following a down(prenominal) trend the company is diligently improving to stay highly innovative and portray a serious competitor on the market. The shift to a new business model of creating demand De Beers has made it to a new competitive player taking continuously measures to add up to its competitive advantage, e.g. steady development and generation of technologies as well as foreign direct investment. The latter means a huge support of a developing country that certainly needs external aid to cleanse the economic situation inside the country.ConclusionThroughout this business report it was demonstrated that the firm De Beers always has been a very successful company. From scratch of its operations, De Beers followed well-wrought business concepts. Since the company is British-South African by origin methods to internationalise business operations had been very favourable in terms of crea ting success. The main aspects, make the business growing were 1st investing directly in African countries such as Botswana and Namibia, 2nd exporting directly to Britain and many other countries and 3rd establishing important joint ventures with e.g. African governments. Although De Beers took great risks operating how it finally did it got a maximum reward possible what is likely to be its brain-teaser of a successful business. Through the ages De Beers created itself high reputation among customers, further the firm had a competitive advantage benefitting from operating very early on this particular market. The company enjoyed a protrusion of know-how and knowledge about the market manifesting it by locating itself intelligently. All these points favoured De Beers monopoly which they held over decades. Accidentally the luck has turned. In the late 1980 years and throughout the 1990s an unfortunate series of events should end De Beers success story. With increasing frequency int ernational media casted a poor light on De Beers blaming the company to finance civil wars in African countries such as Sierra Leone or Angola. But De Beers had somehow to get through this period full of obstacles since it had a long track record to defend. moreover the firm possessed still a good position on the market. To overcome those problems De Beers responded proactively in initiating a multifaceted strategy shift that was realised progressively throughout a decade from 1999 until today. De Beers had to learn a lot about its business environment since they did not operate as a monopoly any longer. But De Beers has a fair chance having learned from its mistakes within those past ten years. The company is likely to grow out of this contend and might improve operations and achieve higher profits in the future. But since they have to bear additionally caused costs e.g. by the Supplier of Choice strategy and still compete with their customers who possibly could establish own br ands which would diminish De Beers power in sales the company exposes itself to a fight that keeps probably extending over several years. Reference list/BibliographyAnglo American plc. (2009). baseball fields. capital of the United Kingdom Anglo American plc.Banse, F., Jung, A. (2005). Der Stoff aus dem Kriege sind. medico internationl e.V. Frankfurt s.n.De Beers. (2005, September 29). A financial overview about De Beers. Presentation to Anglo American Analysts and Investment Banks , 99. London.De Beers Group. (2009, June 23). Botswana and De Beers celebrate a 40-year partnership. From De Beers Website Press Releases. Online obtainable athttp//www.debeersgroup.com/en/Media-centre/Press-releases/2009/Botswana-and-De-Beers-celebrate-a-40-year-partnership/ Accessed 11 November 2009De Beers Group. (2008). De Beers A diamond is forever. From Home. Online visible(prenominal) athttp//www.debeersgroup.com/en/ Accessed 25 October 2009De Beers Jewellers. (2009). The De Beers Difference. From De Beers Jewellery. Online Available at http//www.debeerseu.com/Bridal-link/De-Beers-Passport/page/debeerspassport Accessed 7 November 2009De Beers, Family of Companies. (2009). Report to Society 2008. London De Beers Group.DTC. (2009). DTC Sightholders. From About DTC Sightholders. Online Available athttp//www.dtcsightholderdirectory.com/Sightholder/modules/introducing/IntroDefault.aspx Accessed 7 November 2009Epstein, E. J. (1982). The Diamond Invention. e-Book London Hutchinson.Even-Zohar, C. (2006, October 27). Diamond Value Chain. Mining Journal .Irwin, R. (2001, May 7). De Beers in Need of a Polish. brandchannel .Lee, H., Ko, H., Mehta, S., Rozwat, A., Smailagic, G. (2007). Marketing Plan. Online Available athttp//www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/gsmailag/portfolio/B4%20-%20Marketing%20Final%20Paper.pdf Accessed at 23 November 2009medico international e.V. (2007). medico-Kampagnen Fatal Transactions. From medico-international. Online Available athttp//www.medico-internationa l.de/kampagne/fatal/ft_br2005_fatal.asp Accessed 10 November 2009Morapedi, C. (2009). Botswana and De Beers celebrate a 40-year partnership. Gaborone De Beers Group.OConnell, P. (2009, January 6). De Beers Multifaceted Strategy Shift. From BusinessWeek. Online Available athttp//www.businessweek.com/managing/content/jan2009/ca2009016_644338.htm Accessed 23 November 2009Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive Advantage Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. Book New York The needy Press.QuickMBA. (2009). Competitve Advantage. From Quick MBA Strategic Management. Online Available athttp//www.quickmba.com/strategy/competitive-advantage/ Accessed 28 October 2009UNDP. (2009). Statistics of the gracious Development Report. From Human Development Reports. Online Available athttp//hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/ Accessed 10 November 2009Williams, L. (2008, January 30). Diamond demand exceeds supply but many juniors still suffering. From Mineweb. Online Available athttp//www.mineweb.com/minewe b/view/mineweb/en/page37?oid=45568sn=Detail Accessed 8 November 2009

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Wizard of Oz-Beyond the Yellow Brick Road

The lead of Oz-Beyond the Yellow Brick RoadToto, I defy a feeling were not in Kansas anymore, claims Dorothy Gale as she explores her new public of lively garble in the Land of Oz. The germinate The champion of Oz, commensurate from L. Frank Baums childrens book The Wonderful star topology of Oz, released in movie theaters in 1939 and nominated for an Oscar Award for Best Cinematography and garble (The Internet picture Database).The famous musical tells a story of a young little girl Dorothy who gets lost in the Land of Oz and travels long and far to the Emerald City. At the Emerald City, she finds the Wizard of Oz, who she hopes will help her get back home to Kansas. On her pilgrimage she befriends the Scarecrow, the Tinman, and the Cowardly Lion at the same clock, she must also wait off the Wicked Witch of the West who tries to take Dorothys enchanted ruby slippers. The Wizard of Oz has a unique characteristic in that it was one of the first films to overwhelm Techn icolor (The Internet Movie Database). Transitioning into colored films became an measurable event in film fib. The movie industry now had the technology capable of filming in sound and color, which dynamically influences a movie.The Wizard of Oz contains umpteen colorful items that nobble key roles in the film the yellow brick course, Dorothys ruby slippers, and the Emerald City. One dexterity find it intriguing to learn that since the idea of Technicolor has been applied, authoritative color in comprise important ideas. Although many viewers enjoy watching The Wizard of Oz and whitethorn think nothing more of it but as a virtuous fairy tale manikinic, the use of Technicolor conveyed many aspects somewhat the Statesn history in the early 1900s including racial issues, economic issues, and political issues.Colors were utilize as a technique to represent social classes or certain races. Once Dorothy steps out of her house after the twister, she stares in reverence at the vibrant colors of Munchkinland. These colors help the audience to stipu ripe the protagonist and antagonists. For instance, the Wicked Witch of the West and her Winkies, the guardians of the castle, have green skin, unlike those who appear to be human like Dorothy. The differences in color draw and quarter to the public discourse on race in 1900 (Ritter 173). These references to racial disputes reflected the multiplication in the early 1900s, or post Civil warfare. While find from the Civil War, many make believeer Afri basis American slaves struggled to continue reenforcement their lives now that Abraham Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation has been established.They had the opportunity to find jobs, but motionlessness had difficulty merging with the white community. Baum published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1900 and incorporated racial (social) issues at that certain point in term in order to point out that there existed a nonintegrated culture. Historians refer to the l ate nineteenth carbon and early twentieth century as the Gilded Age, an era which featured concerns about social variegate (190).The movie depicts the differences among the groups of characters and displays how they do not cooperate well together. Another archetype of utilizing color to express a change in social class is coloring the Emerald City. As Dorothy and her friends trot along the yellow brick road, the film captures the Emerald Citys elegant, excellent towers from afar the city itself has magnificent structures radiant in green splendor. Baum associates the the great unwashed of the Emerald City as well as the Wizard of Oz with the color tight green . . . as . . . selfish, stingy, and false, (184) which in the end, the Wizard proves to be when he does not keep his promise to help Dorothy and her newfound friends. The reference to green does not advert that a certain race is selfish rather, it exemplifies the idea that at this time in history, serious turmoil existed amidst different cultures and races. Overall, color orientation enables the audience to understand relationships among the characters.The film also uses Technicolor to recognize the economic crisis occurring during the late nineteenth century, referred to as the Gilded Age and during Americas Great Depression. In the theme and end of the motion picture, Dorothy is back home in Kansas, where the erectting is set in a bronze, sepia color, unlike the Land of Oz, containing all the colors of the rainbow. The overall look of Kansas is bleak. . . including . . . the house, people, and prairie . . .which . . . are all dull and gray (177). The striking contrast in colors between Kansas and the Land of Oz shows how dismal and dispirit the lodge innts of Kansas felt while suffering from the poor economy this represents the dismay many farmers experienced in the United States during the early 1900s. In the film, Dorothy comes from Kansas, where there reside clusters of independent farm ers. Baum published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1900, the cusp between the decline of Populism and producerism and the rise of consumerism and corporate liberalism (198). At this time, many farmers created labor movements collectible to devastating droughts (198). In 1939, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer brought the Oz tale to screen in vivid color . . . while . . . the nation was recuperating from the depression and preparing itself for the challenge of World War II (199). Color made an impact on the audience in that it inspired them to incur hope that America would emerge, as Dorothy did, stronger for the difficulties they faced and overcame (199). In the movie, transitioning from black and white to dazzling colors allows the audience to relate to Dorothy.The black and white setting represents America during the Great Depression. When Dorothy, representing the common people, is in the Land of Oz, she overcomes her obstacles, which represents America overcoming World War II. The use of co lor gives off a sense of optimism for the audience about the troubles that lay ahead.Many noticeable items in the movie play a key role in Dorothys journey, but also correspond to important political ideas. In fact, The economic and political tumult of the 1880s and mid-nineties was reflected in competing cultural understandings of American society (198). Glinda, the Witch of the North, explains to Dorothy that the Wizard of Oz can help her find her way home to Kansas. In order to collide with the Wizard of Oz, she must follow the yellow brick road that leads her to the Emerald City, found in the center of the Land of Oz. The yellow brick road symbolizes the gold standard, the current form of currency (Rockoff 746). Many financial reformers criticized the gold standard and the National Banking arranging . . . for favoring industrial over agricultural development (191). Many have analyse both the movie and book and have interpreted it as a monetary allegory about Populists (Hansen 254). Dorothy represents the Populist Party, while the yellow brick road that leads to the Emerald City signifies Washington, D.C., controlled by the Money Power and gold traders (Ritter 194). Even though the yellow brick road shows Dorothy the way to the Wizard, she still does not find her dissolving agent of returning home when she arrives. Very much like a endorsement in history, this event correlates to the decline of the Populists who cried out to government in dread(a) need for help with crops and farmland. For example, a group of unemployed men, suffering under the economic depression of the 1890s, . . . marched from Ohio to Washington to demand work and relief, but . . . were disperse rather than rewarded (183). Dorothys journey and this small group of men are alike in that both parties sought for help, but never initially authorized any. In the Emerald City, the significance of the color green relates to greenbacks, or paper money, which many people of the United States referred to as a form of false protect (184). This color coding can also relate back to the Wizard.The Wizard of Oz provides important historical references that took place in the United States of America. The movie allows us to escape from reality and discover somewhere over the rainbow a legerdemain dreamland where adventure and excitement await us. The magic of The Wizard of Oz has an unerasable memory to all ages, end-to-end the ages. As one of the most famous films in pop culture, the motion picture has obtained many outstanding awards thank to an unforgettable cast and crew. Not only does the film remain a Hollywood classic, but it serves as historical documentation. As technology has progressed throughout time, the film has used the latest advances of Technicolor to produce a meaningful pluck of artwork embedded with racial, economic, and political references. No matter what type of audience views the movie, each individual can relate to the idea that despite on-going conflicts, theres no place like home.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Netflix And Blockbuster Battle For Market Leadership Marketing Essay

Netflix And blockbuster Battle For Market Leadership Marketing Essay flick retail constancy implicates such companies that subscribe to videodisks, Blu-ray discs and even video recording games which be usable on interior(a)-based electronic equipment (Espedido Julian, 2010). Many companies ar participants in this lucrative employment and they include such companies as Wal-Mart, Netflix, smash hit, Intelliflix, Redbox and GameZnFlix among otherwisewises. Both Netflix and smash hit companies be presently the leading in the lease painting industry and in that respectof the major rivals in the renting photograph industry. As to Blockbuster, it has a rather lengthy convention in the business. The Blockbuster has existed since the year 1985, even as Netflix entered its 12th anniversary this year. This gives Blockbuster an edge of existence over its destination competitor Netflix. This paper intends to critically provide an in depth compend for Arthur Thompsons cas e study entitled Competition in the picture show lease Industry in 2008 Netflix and Blockbuster Battle for Market Leadership. It volition despoil thoroughly issues like the trends which affect either negatively or positively the delineation term of a contract industry with utmost reference to Netflix and Blockbuster in respect to their fight for the foodstuff ordinate headship, scrutinize in detail the agonistic motion picture rental industry environment, and by mention give slender discussion on the use of both the SWOT as surface as reasonable scorecard to evaluate Netflixs battle strategy for food securities industry leadership on the whole.Dominant Business and Economic Characteristics of Movie rental IndustryThe video rental industry (formally known as residence sport or leisure) is real an sparing segment duly mixed with the development, marketing and sale of movie as well as other computer games. It includes such video games as consoles, game softwargon, mobile games, take hold devices as well as online games. In recent years, the movie industry of has been experiencing exp championntial appendage. The growth has been such that it is expected even to further leap-frog in the near and far future (Espedido Julian, 2010). harmonise to Espedido Julian (2010), the industrys dominant economic features include 1) Market bulk and growth measure More than $35 billion was spent on video games consoles, game softw atomic number 18 etcetera Industry is expected to hire much than $51 billion sale by 2010. 2) Numbers of rivals The two main(prenominal) contenders are Netflix and Blockbuster. 3) The extent of hawkish challenge Global presence with regional focus is required for companys agonistic long term success. 4) Numbers of buyers around 250 to 300 million citizenry globally did watch movies and nearly the corresponding number did play video games in the year 2007. There is for instance, an estimated aver term age of those acti vely gnarled in the video games. The estimated age has actually jumped to 33 years in 2005, and close 25 percent of video gamers were in excess of age 50. 5) The extent of product discrimination The bigger the extent of differentiation, the further the competitory advantage. 6) Product innovation merchandise innovation plays noteworthy role in capturing the market percentage and to take belligerent advantage in the market. And finally, pace of technological advancement Newly sophisticated engineering science advancement does plays a crucial role in entertainment industry particularly with callable regard to movie rental industry. The emergence for instance of internet operate subscribe made it quite easier for Netflixs founder, reed Hastings who did become sensible of the demand for online renting of movies way back in the year 1997. Without hesitation, he began the vibrant online movie rental business indeed to a monumental scale. Netflix became successful, and it di d not take long before he began to bring in the reimbursements of someone elses idea.CompetitionIn the movie rental industry, there has been an tearing competition mingled with two major business rivals Netflix and Blockbuster. The competition in the movie rental industry has been so frighteningly fierce for the originator few years that it has been termed by many an(prenominal) opinion leaders as unhealthy business wise. Netflix and Blockbuster are actually the current leaders in the booming rental movie industry and by extension and to that effect the major rivals. The Blockbuster has been in the business for long, in fact, since 1985 on the other hand, Netflix that entered its 12th existence year this year. Actually the founder, Reed Hastings did establish Netflix in the year 1997. Nevertheless, at the moment, Netflix appears to lead the market in terms of market acquisition. Netflix which is for the most part viewed as a neophyte does deal around 9.6 million online custo mers who consent subscribed to their go. In comparison, Blockbuster has just slightly more than 3 million online subscribers despite its interminable years of existence. In the United States of America, there are other online movie rental companies which include companies such as Intelliflix, Redbox and GameZnFlix. However, GameZnFlix and Redbox do not look the locals most of the time. Instead they more frequently than not target Asiatic markets. Additionally, Wal-Mart excessively did attempt to spawn profits in the movie rental industry but sooner was outrun in the business by Netflix. These days Wal-Mart merely possesses an advertising contract with Netflix in the industry.Online Service world(a) IdeaBoth the Netflix and Blockbuster entire right of entry are online movie rental services. This implies that one can look through their records and place movies or even a favorite program in ones queue. A customer or a piece is permitted to maintain a videodisk so long as she/ he so wants and there also exist no outstanding dates or even late charges. The execution is such that once a movie had been seen it is wrapped in an envelope and immediately sent back to either Netflix or Blockbuster. So antiphonal are the movie rental companies such that as soon as a movie sent back is received, the next movie to be sent in the stand in line will duly be sent to the customer or member. Indeed, Both Netflix and Blockbuster do have many different strategies from which to choose. The possible options are two-fold and they include moderate rentals and unlimited rentals. In its infinite DVD rental option, Netflix does offer eight-spot (8) strategies. The salutes normally vary from about $10 for a movie at a particular time to around $50 for 8 movies. On the other hand, Blockbuster has four (4) different schemes which fall between $10 and $24. As regards limited rentals, Netflix normally offer two (2) DVDs per month for about $6 or four (4) DVDs for a period of o ne month for about $12.however, with reference to limited rentals, a Blockbuster member is able to get two (2) DVDs for the equivalent value as their market challengers or four (4) DVDs for about $8 all. Netflix has more continuous entertainment flow merits. Netflix utilizes technological advancement than no other company. For example if an case-by-case is a member of Netflix, it is highly possible movies are watched from the singulars website at the same time as the person is waiting to pay back the subsequent movies from the list. This put on is only to be had to Netflix customers. Nonetheless, Blockbuster also has certain incentives to their customers. It normally allow a rental customer to turn back a watched movie physically. On further advancement to outdo each other, Netflix more often than not sends a brisk show within a day, whereas it takes Blockbuster around two to three days to deliver a brisk movie. Netflix is really sophisticated in this business. It does offer a wider assortment of movies as compared to its biggest competitors and even a rare expediency of notice shows online. Further still, they are also faster on matters shipping. With regard to technological use, Blockbuster only lets a member arrange and order movies online. Their movies are also largely obtainable in their blood lines. As a precede, they lack online movie watching services. However, Blockbuster does give a rare chance to its customers to acquire as much as double shows given that their in store rental services is complete with a Total Access Pass.The Forces Driving Movie Rental IndustrySeveral forces do propel the movie rental industry especially with regard to the performance of one of the market leaders, the Netflix, and they include such forces as i) Market Features-The industry was in actual market maturity stage previous to the application and utilization of the net income technology as a medium of dispersal. Netflix did capitalize and subsequently utiliz ed the Internet sophistication to gain huge market share by religious offering customers and members with direct movie download accessibility and undeviating shipments to their home. As anterior stated, Netflix was and for that matter still remain a market leader that realised the commencement ceremony authorization of the market which did exist for Internet movie rentals. According to Espedido Julian (2010) they did charter the product less complex for the consumer to acquire by eliminating unnecessary hassle that existed before and in lieu provided accelerated delivery. ii) derive Margins of the Industry- the gross profit of Netflix did shoot up from $8 million in the year 2000 to around $419.6 million in the year 2007. it was an indication that Netflix was full and capable of capitalizing on the existing market trends which affect the entire movie rental industry. Netflix market entrance was quite successful and this contributed to their fast growth and expansive market share acquisition. iii) Competition Intensity- when Netflix was entering movie retail industry, the industry and so was operating as an oligopoly as Blockbuster did catch a major market share. Netflix was amazingly able to compete against the then well established Blockbuster by effectively and efficiently utilize the Internet technology and the policy of one day delivery distribution channels were its central competitive advantage over Blockbuster and other allied companies in the market that was largely oligopoly. iv) Variations in Demand-Movie demand appears to be somewhat consistent. Nevertheless, more and more customers seem to be too conventional. They are reminiscent of the idea of requesting for the DVDs off the Internet. v) Capital and Technological Requirements- A huge amount of initial capital is duly required to start the business of movie rentals and in turn obtain any momentous share of the market since fees that must be paid is quite exorbitant.Compare Netflix a nd Blockbusters competitive strategiesBoth Netflix and Blockbuster have employed diverse strategies, plans and schemes to gain more market share as well as revenues as they can. They have before engaged in business tussles. Both the companies have actually been involved in price battle, each lowering its operation approach compared to the cost charged by their rival (Thompson, et al. 2010). This strategy however, popular with many competing companies does work advantageously to consumers since the consumers get the same kind of services for a smaller amount of money they pay. The CEO of Netflix, Reed Hastings strategies is to secure about 20 million customers by the year 2012. Netflix therefore puts a great deal of anxiety on Blockbuster compelling them to swap something in their strategy and future plans. In fact, up till about two years ago, Blockbuster was charging for their services late fees for failure to replica on time DVDs back (Thompson, et al. 2010). The company hence forth changed their strategy and no longer charge late fees any more. Netflix has very aggressive strategies. They have been purchasing privileges to autonomous films. This plan will permit Netflix to rent or even sell DVDs or movies in the theatres. In so doing, Netflix gambles and attempts to make more cash on movies which Hollywood never considers. It duly industrial plant in their favor since only 30 percent of Netflixs rentals are new releases (Thompson, et al. 2010).Advantages/Disadvantages of Two RivalsAdvantages of NetflixNetflix provides more advantages to its customers. According to Roth, Daniel (2009) their customers do watch more than 7000 movies online as a member. Their website also makes recommendations based on your previous ratings. Further, their website keeps track of movies rented. Moreover, they have a large selection of special interest DVDs. Finally, they avail to their customers a 2 week free trial.Disadvantages of NetflixNetflix have numerous merits. Howeve r, they also have few demerits. For instance, they show poor customer service. Their services subject customers into a long wait for new releases.Advantages of Blockbuster Total AccessBlockbuster as a market rival to Netflix has merits too. They offer 2 free video/game in store monthly rentals to their members. Their members also bed privilege to return online order to any local Blockbuster store and this is very convenient to customers (Roth, Daniel, 2009). In addition, their customers pay a paltry $9.99 for the first month of subscription.Disadvantages of Blockbuster Total AccessNevertheless, Blockbuster also has disadvantages. For that case, their customers are barred from returning rented Movies by mail. Finally, their consumers are conditioned to have 2 separate accounts in order to rent in store and online (Blockbuster, 2008).A Complete SWOT for NetflixThe founders of Netflix were Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph. This was way back in the year 1997. They both viewed the busine ss as a blend of accustomed video store as well as a subscription or payment cable TV services. Since April 1998, Netflix has been offering DVD owners an expedient as well as a cost effectual alternative to rent movies. Netflix has been operating as an internet based rental movie subscription services provider particularly for formatted movies of digital video disc (DVD). Its website provided its members to not only surf its catalogue of shows without difficulties, but also offered clips of movies which customers could afford to rent. Its prime boot is to offer versatile services which can help its members pick and obtain rental movies with an absolute gratification.Netflixs founders were very intelligent. They were able to foresee the positive potential of technological trend of the digital video disc player market jointly with the fast growth of internet access. Netflix as a result placed itself immediately in the internet DVD rental business. Their main focus was on those Ameri cans who love movies, can access the internet, owns a DVD player or possess PCs or have DVD-ROM. Unsatisfied customers with the ascertain of the game of the other local movie rental companies preferred the online stores which was offered in the main by Netflix. The online stores did cover scores of demographics.SummaryFrom the point of view of the user, there is bound to occur varied preferences towards one service. It mostly relies on individual needs of a service member. For instance, versed with technological advancement will more likely favor Netflix, whilst a family living at home and is close to a Blockbuster store would prefer its services. Relying on the expression above, it is adequate to say that Netflix is more than able to be steps ahead of Blockbuster because they do not incur overbearing overhead cost of possessing its stores as well as storing all DVDs.

The psychology behind child abuse and neglect

The psychology behind infant contumely and missThe psychology of the squirt tracks with mental growth or, what amounts to the resembling thing, the development of behavior patterns (including consciousness) up to adolescence, the transitional phase marking the entrance of the individual into big(a) society. mental growth is in- separable from corporeal growth the maturation of the nervous and endocrine systems, in particular, continues until the age of sixteen. The psychology of a babe must be regarded as the study of unity aspect of embryogenesis, the embryogenesis of organic as well(p) as mental growth, up to the beginning of the state of relative labyrinthine sense which is the adult level.Child ill-treatment is the physical and/or psychological/ stimulated clapperclawment of nestlingren. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define minor insult as any doing or series of acts or commission or omission by a rear or differ ent caregiver that results in revile, potential for price, or threat of harm to a tiddler.Most electric razor iniquity occurs in a electric shavers home, with a sm all in all(prenominal)er amount occurring in the organizations, schools or communities the barbarian interacts with.The mental wellness journal, states that barbarian debase is defined as any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, life-threatening physical or emotional harm, informal vitiate or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. There are four study categories of child cry inattention, physical villainy, psychological/emotional ab substance vitiate, and sexual abuse.NEGLECT throw off is the instance in which the responsible adult fails to adequately provide for motley urgencys, including physical (failure to provide adequate food, clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide nurturing or i nvolveion) or educational (failure to enroll a child in school). physiologic ABUSE is physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. It domiciliate involve striking, burning, choking or shaking a child. The transmission of toxins to a child through its m an different(prenominal) (such as with foetal alcohol syndrome) raft to a fault be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions .The distinction in the midst of child discipline and abuse is oftentimes disadvantageously defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely among professionals as well as the wider public, spate do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse. Some human service professionals claim that cultural norms that bureau/ support physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and receive undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. In the United States, the National Association of tender Workers has issued statements that even the mildest forms of physical punishment , such as moderate spanking, can sink childrens egotism-esteem, constitute acts of violence, and teach children that physical force is an acceptable way to answer conflicts. Against this latter argument, the philosopher Prof. David Benatar points out that one might as well articulate that fining plenty teaches that forcing others to give up some of their property is an acceptable way to respond to those who act in a way that one does not like. If b ingests send a message, why dont detentions, imprisonments, fines, and a multitude of other punishments convey equally undesirable messages? He adds.3PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE also cognize as emotional abuse, which can involve belittling or shaming a child, inappropriate or extreme punishment and the withholding of affection. kidskin SEXUAL ABUSE is any sexual act among an adult and a child, including penetration, oral sex and forced nudity in straw man of the adult. According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse , in 1997 cut represented 54% of confirmed aspects of child abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional insult 4%, and other forms of maltreatment 12%.A UNICEF report on child eudaemonia stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. This study also found that child neglect and child abuse are far much common in single-parent families than in families where two parents are present.CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSEChild abuse is a complex problem which has multiple causes. Understanding the causes of abuse is of the essence(p) to addressing the problem of child abuse. Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more liable(predicate) to physically abuse their children However, it is voiceless to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if some(prenominal) the marital strife and abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.Substance abuse is a major contri anding factor t o child abuse. One study found that parents with enter substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. another(prenominal) study found that oer two triplets of4cases of child maltreatment composite parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and between cocaine and sexual abuse. In 2009 CBS word of honor account that child abuse in the United States had increased during the scotch recession. It gave the example of a acquire who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. Now that the father was in that role, the children began to come in with injuries.CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSEChildren run through that proficient to be loved. But there are those who suffer child abuse in the rattling sense of the word. Child abuse could either be physical, mental or sex ual abuse to children. This might entertain trustworthy adverse effects on the child so they must be given extra support and attention physical abuse concerns maltreatments of children in a physical way. This means hurting the children physically, or not free them proper nutrition. Emotional abuse or mental abuse, on the other hand, is about abuse in children which affects primarily their emotions. This includes saying hurtful wrangle to children, as well as scolding them often that lower their self esteem. Sexual abuse, however, is abuse that concerns the sexual attributes of a child. This is one of the worst cases of child abuse.Like any other abuse, child abuse also has a cause. There are many an(prenominal) causes of child abuse. The most prominent one among the causes is mental illness, as well as psychological problems. The tendency is that people who are not in their right minds, could easily do harm to children, whether intentional or not.Also, family problems are major causes of child abuse. Parents under the bureau of drugs could easily hurt their children. Plus, financial problems could invoke parents or other5members of the family to abuse children as an outlet of their emotions. Stress could also be a root cause of child abuse. It is good to know the cause of abuse on a certain child so that the treatment and the actions could be well defined.EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE (SHORT TERM)Studies indicate that every twenty-four hour period a significant number of children are exposed to serious maltreatment and neglect leading to physical and psychological injury and serious long-term consequences. Researchers are continuously examining the wide range of potential consequences of child abuse and neglect. Mounting evidence suggests that, in addition to the immediate negative effects on children, maltreatment is associated with a host of problems manifested in adolescence and adulthood. Child abuse is not, however, a short-term crisis in a childs life. Although children are removed from idle homes or leave home to live on their own, the effects of experiencing abuse in their childhood follow them through life. Child abuse can affect all aspects of a childs life and can spill over in there adult life as well. Effects of child abuse include the interestPSYCOLOGICAL EFFECTSChild abuse whitethorn permanently alter the psychological well being of a child. adjacent maltreatment, children are known to display the following problemsExtreme and repetitive nightmares, Anxiety. outstandingly postgraduate levels of anger and aggression. Feelings of guilty conscience and shame for sexually maltreat victims this can be quite severe, especially if the victim experienced some leg of pleasure during part of the abuse. Sudden phobias, such as a fright of darkness or water.6Psychosomatic complaints, including stomachaches, headaches, hypochondrias is, fecal soiling, bed escape and unwarranted blinking. General fearfulness and a specific fear of others of the same gender as the abuser. Depressive symptoms, long bouts of sadness, social withdrawal. Self- inform social isolation and feelings of stigmatization.. by and by continued exposure to maltreatment, children whitethorn develop further psychological complications crucial increase in rates of psychiatric disorders, Dissociation, intrusive thoughts suicidal ideation and more acute phobias, More serious levels of anxiety fear depression, loneliness, anger, hostility and guilt, warp cognition, such as chronic lights of danger and confusion, illogical thinking, inaccurate images of the world, shatter assumptions about the world and difficulty determining what is real, decreased effectiveness in comprehending complex roles.PHYSICAL EFFECTSIn addition to the obvious physical injuries, such as broken bones, bruises and scarring, abuse is also related to several(prenominal) supernumerary physical complications for children, including the followingChildren who have su ffered serious and chronic neglect are more likely to be smaller and lighter than non- ill-treated children, which has been shown to affect long-term health.Children who are physically abused (or shaken in the case of very young children) may suffer permanent neurological damage, dramatically affecting their future development.Weight problems often emerging as eating disorders.Serious sleeps disturbances and bouts of dizziness when awake.7Other stress-related symptoms, such as GI problems, migraine headaches, difficulty breathing, hypertension, aches, pains and rashes which defy diagnosis and/or treatment, forgetful overall health.BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCESAbused children are known to display the following behavioral problems Developmental delays, Clinging behavior, extreme shyness and fear of strangers, Troubled socialization with peers constant fighting or socially undesirable behaviors, such as bullying, teasing or not sharing, Poor school ad fairishment and roiled classroom behavior,there is a growing understanding among researchers that child maltreatment is associated with a host of behavioral problems that manifest themselves in adolescence School-age pregnancy, Self- deadly behaviors such as self-mutilation or burning, Truancy and running away behavior, Delinquency and prostitution. Early use of drugs/alcohol and substance abuse/ dependance, Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia or obesity primarily among female victims,Suicide and suicide attempts.Evidence suggests that many of these problems continue into adulthood and become ingrained patterns of behavior. It is believed that in order to deal with the trauma of being abused and drop, children and youth develop such behaviors as coping strategies. And although these behaviors eventually become self-destructive, they are often passing difficult to abandon.EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCEOne of the most destructive consequences of child abuse may be the detrimental effect on8a childs school performance. Over and over again, research indicates that abused children demonstrate reduced intellectual functioning and perform very poorly in school. And poor school performance can have serious long-term consequences. Academic failure has been associated with antisocial behavior and quitting school. These behaviors in put to work increase the risk of long-term decreased productivity, long-term economic dependence and generally lower levels of satisfaction with life as adults.58 handle children may display the following Lower overall schools performance test dozens and lower language, reading and math scores.Grade repetitions, disciplinary referrals and a high number of suspensions.Working and learning at below average levels (as reported by teachers).Weaker orientation to future vocational and educational goals compared to non-maltreated children.It is understandable that maltreated children will perform poorly in school. Not only do they face the obvious complications asso ciated with a godforsaken home life, but abandoned and abusive parents are less likely to provide an intellectually touch on environment for the child, read to the child, supervise homework and generally become involved in their childs academic life.EFFECT ON SEXUALITYIn general, abuse adversely affects a childs concept of sexuality reduces his or her ability to put together appropriate boundaries and often instills a fear or negative perception of sex. duration the majority of sexual consequences are the result of sexual abuse, other forms of maltreatment can also be sexually destructive. For example, a neglected child may seek9sexual intimacy very primeval in life in order to fulfil an unmet need for parental intimacy. This creates a risk for teenage pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. The following are the major sexual consequences of maltreatment reported in the literatureEngaging in open or excessive masturbation, excessive sexual curiosity and frequent exposure o f the genitals.Simulated sexual acts with siblings and friends, inappropriate sexual behavior such as breast or genital grabbing.Premature sexual knowledge sexualized kissing in friendships and with parents.In adolescence and adulthood, maltreated children continue to display sexually maladaptive behaviorOrgasmic disorders and vexing intercourse, Promiscuity, Dissatisfaction with sex and negative attitudes about sex.These problems are often the result of introducing a sexual component into a parent-child relationship, which affected the childs sense of sexuality and intimacy. In essence, a child who has suffered sexual abuse can, as a result, have difficulty distinguishing between a sexual and a non-sexual relationship and consequently introduce a sexual element into all relationships.INTERPERSONAL CONSEQUENCESChild abuse can interfere with a persons ability to develop important and appropriate relationships from childhood through to adulthood. Abused and neglected children are c onsistently rated by their peers as demonstrating socially undesirable behavior. Children displaying multiple psychological and behavioral problems often have a difficult time10both developing and maintaining healthy relationships. Victimization reduces social competence and limits empathic ability, both of which are necessary to establish satisfying relationships with others. Maltreated children have been known to display the following interpersonal problemsInsecure attachments to parents and caregivers,loss of close friends, difficulty in trusting others. Relationship problems, such as as well sexualized or overly conflicted relationships. Chronic dissatisfaction with adult relationships and fear of intimacy.EFFECTS ON SELF experienceParental abuse undoubtedly affects the self-esteem of a child. A overlook of interest in a child or a violent attack on a child, for example, will likely lead the child to develop a sense of unworthiness. Maltreatment has been associated with distor ted or extremely negative self-images starting in childhood and continuing throughout ones life. Maltreated children typically view themselves as bad, worthless or unlovable and may develop the following problemsExtremely low levels of self-esteem, Feelings of being out of control, away body images which often lead to eating disorders, Overwhelming sense of guilt or self-blame for the abuse, Impairment of a cohesive sense of identity, Self-disgust, self-denigration, self-hatred.SPIRITUAL CONSEQUENCESOften, children who have been abused and neglected report having lost their sense of faith, not just a religious belief in a divine being, but also their faith in themselves, other people and the world almost them. It is common for maltreated children to display what11some authors have called a shattered soul or soul pain. Moreover, adults who have experienced maltreatment display less interest and participation in organized religion. opinionated battering, sexual abuse, emotional att acks or the long-term neglect of a child is likely to destroy his or her spirit or enthusiasm for life. While often overlooked in the literature, the shattered soul may prove to be an extremely significant long-term consequence of child maltreatment. accompanying VIOLENCEVictims of child abuse often become further wrong as adolescents and adults and/or become violent themselves toward their own children and in conversant(p) relationships. According to studies on the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment, one third of all victims grow up to continue a pattern of seriously inept, broken-down or abusive child rearing as parents one third do not and one-third remain vulnerable to the effects of child maltreatment depending upon social stressors in their life. Adults and adolescents who report a history of child maltreatment may demonstrate the followingMaltreatment of their own children. A history of being a victim of a violent round off by a non-family member during adolescence.Perpetrating dating violence in adolescence and/or spousal violence in adulthood.Becoming a victim of an assaultive partner (most often a male abuser) and/or the victim of additional sexual assaults.CHILD ABUSE A PERMANENT AND LIFELONG sufferingWhen an orphan or adolescent experience trauma such as family violence, child abuse, or witnesses prolonged violence, several problems arise. These children might experience12anger, distrust, and fear commitment. Children who live through such childhood trauma often suffer permanently. Extensive studies about adults abused as children investigate the relationships between childhood trauma and problems including uncontrollable anger and a negative attitude. Miller, Villani and Sharfstein all discuss numerous factors that influence violence, including alcohol, violent threats, and a violent old (Miller, p. 61-62 and Sharfstein, p. 2). Miller (1998) presents several abuse and mistreatment studies concerning children who experience family violence at an early age and how this violence leads them to have behavioral problems as adults (p. 62). Child abuse, whether inflicted on orphans or children who live with biological parents, causes distrust, another problem and long perdurable effect. Distrust can result with abused children. These children begin to distrust the people closest to them, their family, and this lack of trust carries over into adulthood.13

Thursday, March 28, 2019

On the Possibility of Transcendental Materialism Essay -- Philosophy P

On the Possibility of Transcendental physicalismABSTRACT The purpose of this address is to argue for the following theses (1) the concept of obscureity fuel be associated not only with idealism but also with physicalism (2) such a connection was made possible by Karl Marxs guess and (3) in the development of Marxism up to now, theory has been tied to a political movement, which is an error of principle, for what survives of it is a kind of social ethics which should more fitly be called Marxism. Transcendence and immanence are notions of relationship. Values exist sultrily above the senses e.g., the aesthetic value of a painting is not superposable with the material of the canvas and the oils on it, although it cannot exist without them. Persons who do not screw values that are exceptional compared to the merely natural immanence or, to be sick it in another way, those for whom nothing is sacred are in position not truly human.IThe concept of transcendentality, as we know, w as introduced by Immanuel Kant in Section VII of his Introduction to his chef doeuvre, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, where he said that cognition is transcendental when it is occupied not so much with objects as with the mode of our friendship of objects. He subsequently examined the possibility of surpassing mere immanence without arriving in the sphere of an abstract transcendence. Kants idealism is therefore neither immanent (subjective) nor transcendent (objective)-it is a transcendental idealism that seeks the potential and the limitations of cognition. This concept of transcendentality, although with certain modifications, be unchanged in the subsequent development of German idealism, having in ordinary preserved the formu... ...though it also supersedes it-much in the way of the Kantian idea of companionship which always begins with apperception but then surpasses it theoretically. The assumption of at least a prevailing, if not existing, transcendence-in neo-Kantian terms gelten-existieren-which emerges from the sphere of immanence and supersedes it, using that sphere as a basis, should be the essence of a transcendental materialism. And if Marxs thought is cleansed from the rubble which the political movement has deposited on it, that is, if it takes shape as Marxianism, then from this blast Marxianism, owing to and undertaking the philosophical and cultural heritage it takes as its calculate of departure, may consider itself as a radical Protestant view, still a version of God is dead theologies. Because, as the Czech Marxian philosopher Vitzslav Gardavsky said, God is not simply dead.

How to get in the Music Industry :: essays research papers

Marketing incomprehensible 1To be successful, it doesnt matter how good of a musician you atomic number 18, all that matters is how come up you market yourselfDont get me wrong, being good is all serious(p) to get repeat bookings and referrals. But when you are getting a guest for the first time, all that matters is how well you can market yourself. If you cant market yourself, being a great musician isnt worth a damnMarketing reclusive 2Your marketing and publicize must be completely accountable and measurable.Let me simplify, if you run an ad for $100, you should know (down to the penny) the exact profit or loss of your ad. This way, youll know which ads are successful, and which should be dumped like a bad date. If your marketing isnt measurable, youll dissipation far more money than youll ever make. Take a issue and look at the ads you see in newspapers, magazines, television, etc How many of them can be accurately measured? Thats right none Marketing Secret 3Develop a strong lead generation campaign. bakshish generation is the most important part of your music business. You see, if you dont have a constant and consistent menstruation of highly commensurate prospects coming to you You wont be successful. This is one of the most important things that you MUST do to be successful. By using tiny pomp ads and lead generation letters, you can create a consistent stream of white-hot, qualified prospects. Marketing Secret 4Create a multi-step unionise marketing campaign.You cant send out a crumby brochure one time and expect a gigantic stampede of response. Thats not how it works The easiest and most efficient way to convert prospects to customers is by sending a sequence of perfectly timed and well indite letters. This requires almost no work at all, and produces enormous results.Marketing Secret 5Create multiple streams of income.There are a net ton of professional musicians making a ton of money because of this secret. For you to be rottenl y successful as a professional musician, you must have separate ways to make money in addition to performing. This doesnt rigorous that you have a daytime job or you wait tables on the side It means that you have something to sell to your customers and/or other musicians.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Moral Force Protesting :: essays research papers

Moral exponent ProtestingMoral impel protest has a greater chance to attend that physical aim protest.Discuss in relation to our contemporary world.In the modern world today, there is an immense diversity of global issueswhich be constantly being dealt with. Moral multitude protest as whole few as physicalforce protest atomic number 18 used, in confide of achieving a purpose and proving a point. Forboth of these acts of protest, there must be a substantial amount of facts andevidences backing it up. Both protests, no way out how its done, argon in several(prenominal) wayseeking for the support of the leaders, to the highest degree of the time, the leaders beingthe government.Moral force protest involves logical convincing speeches which are fightingfor a cause within the boundaries of law. Its possible to legally generate enoughsupport for a cause and eventually win by never once using all sort of violence.In some cases, crave strikes by the victims are also done. Asi de from wellconstructed speeches and hunger strikes, the refusal to obey certain laws andthe passive resistance, that is, resisting to incoming violence usually from thegovernment, are other ways to morally protest without any physical violence.sometimes due to the refusal to abide to certain laws the supporters may findabusive, the moral force protest supporters might find themselves confrontingthe law, and perhaps even acting illegally. In recent years, certain countrieswhich hadnt previously thrown women the right to vote changed their closing byreceiving strong moral force protest this right was gained, and straightaway inthose countries women possess the right to vote. Physical force wasnt in anyway used in this case.The opposing way to support some strong cause can be through physical forceprotests. This involves violent protests which may harm state purposely.Destructive attitude from the people supporting a cause by using physical forceis indeed real common. In most(pr enominal) cases violence is used in hope of shortentingattention and media publicity. Physical force protest, has a very distinctivedifference from moral force protest one of the most important ones being that,by violence, these supporters are terrorising the general public, and trying toget the government to recognise their terrorism, and give in. Moral forceprotest is not even remotely linked with terrorism.Not in any way, do the supporters practising moral force protest adapt toterrorism like do these physical force supporters. By terrorising the generalpublic and the government itself, these supporters view theyll create such anintolerable situation that the government will give in to their extreme andsometimes unnecessary violence.

10 GB Mailboxes! A Revolution in Mailbox Sizes? :: science

10 GB postboxes A Revolution in Mailbox Sizes?It is greatly recommended that you realise this article. It may change the current write out in mailboxes.Excerpt By habituateing a new saving rule in email service providers, the storage space reduces & as a result exploiters can enjoy 10 GB email boxes (Or sluice more)10 GB Mailboxes A Revolution in Mailbox Sizes?1. There ar two kinds of emails Private Emails & Public Emails. Private Emails be the emails you send to your wife, friend or business partner. They should not be read by any other person. Public Emails are the emails that parole agencies, news papers, TV channels, corporations, etcetera send to their subscribers to tell them about latest news, views, prices, etc. These emails although having same text & content are sent to many persons perchance up to 10,000 or pull down 100,000.2. Public Emails are applied for by many users, so many copies of commonplace emails are stored on the ch totallyenging disk of any int ernet based email service provider (MSN, Yahoo, AOL, etc.) The storing mechanism seems to be like this Dedicating a cusp on the arduous disk of an email service provider to each user & storing all emails of users in their specific folders, the contents of which are displayed whenever users sign in their mailboxes & a database verifies their usernames/passwords. Under this mechanism 100,000 same newsletters are stored in 100,000 different folders if 100,000 users apply for the newsletter.How uneconomic Just imagine that this mechanism be substituted by other that rely on only maven copy of a public email for everyones use, it will be a giant step in reducing the disk size needed to save data so it will result in much larger mailboxes (probably up to 10 GB or even more)Consider that only one copy of 10 GB sum of emails can be use by all It will boost mail usage & match users unprecedentedly.3. A probable solution Using one shared folder instead of many folders. In this case all the users emails are stored in one place instead of different places. As a result, the emails that subscribe same title, sender & date (parameters can be added or reduced.) even if received many times are stored only once solely a database keeps the records that which emails are sent to whom.In this case when a user signs in & the database verifies username & password, the list of emails & related data that belongs to the user according to database are displayed & whenever the user wants to check his/her emails the database searches for them in the folder & displays to the user.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

The Old Man And The Sea and Moby Dick Essay -- Moby Dick Essays

The aged homo And The ocean and Moby Dick One might say we are presented with both fish stories in looking at Ernest Hemingways The Old Man and the Sea and Herman Melvilles Moby-Dick, a marlin in the former and a whale in the latter. However, both of these animals are symbolic of the struggle their hunters front to find dignity and signification in the face of a nihilistic universe in Hemingway and a fatalistic one in Melville. While both men pull up stakes be unable to conquer the forces of the universe against them, n either will either man be conquered by them because of their refusal to yield to these unconquerable forces. However, Santiago gains a measure of peace and understanding about existence from his struggles, while Ahab leaves the arena as he found it without any great(p)er insight. In The Old Man and the Sea, Santiago, an old Cuban fisherman, pits his strength against forces he cannot control. We learn from Santiagos struggles how to face insurmountable odds with bravery and courage. Though we find an indifferent and unconnected universe as Santiagos stage, his unwillingness to give in to these forces demonstrate a reverence for lifes struggles. Santiagos struggle is for dignity and meaning in the face of insurmountable odds. His warrior-like spirit fights off the sharks full-well knowing the fate of his marlin. Santiago loses his marlin in the end, still his struggle to keep it represent a victory because of the dignity and gallantry with which he carries out his mission. However, as Santiago acknowledges, he is almost gamy he caught the marlin because he knows the animal and he have a great deal in common as fellow beings in nature. However, he only caught the marlin through and through trickery (Hemingway 99). Santi... ... the character of Santiago. He is not as determined as Ahab when it comes to his own nature. He is able to accept that humbleness and love do not take away his pride and in fact they are life sustaining. Ahab cannot give up the only affaire he knows, his passions. Knowledge does not come in the face of a world that remains as mysterious and evil when we leave it as it was when we entered it. For Santiago, there is few measure of relief from the indifferent universe through the interdependence of human beings. Ahab never finds this measure of relief. Yet, they both retain some measure of dignity because they know they cannot conquer the universe but they do not let it conquer them either. Works Cited Hemingway, E. The Old Man and the Sea. new(a) York, Charles Scribners Sons, 1952. Melville, H. Moby-Dick. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1967.

Chaucers Canterbury Tales - Anti-Feminist Beliefs in Millers Tale and

Anti-Feminist Beliefs in The Millers Tale and The married woman of Baths Tale The Millers Tale and The Wife of Baths Tale feature two characters that, though they may appear to be different, are actually very similar. They both seem to confirm the anti-feminine beliefs that existed at the time Chaucer wrote his Canterbury Tales. However, they go around it in different elans. Alison, the woman in The Millers Tale, tries to hide the fact that she has a passion for men other than her husband, and move her position as an upstanding citizen intact. The Wife of Bath, meanwhile, has no qualms about displaying herself as she rattling is. She is not ashamed of the fact she has married five times, and is about to marry again. She hides nothing. While Alison differs from the Wife of Bath in appearance and the way she conducts herself in public, inside they are more alike than Alison would probably apportion to admit. At the beginning of The Millers Tale, there is a rather lengthy verbal rendering of Alisons appearance. She looks beautiful from the outside, true, but throughout the description, Chaucer drops little hints that things are not evermore what they seem. At the very beginning of his description, he compares her body to that of a weasels join was this younge wif, and therwithal As any wesele hir body gent and smal. (Miller 103), and, since a weasel is not star of the more favorable animals to be compared with, he immediately, albeit subtlely, implies that Alison is not as comme il faut as she would have people believe. Chaucer continues in his ostensibly favorable description of Alison, but concludes the paragraph by implying that Alison would have little qualms about sleeping with a man other than her husband She was a primerole, a pigge... ...Millers Tale, it is dubious whether the Wife of Bath would applaud the fact that Alison got herself out of a jam, or would chide Alison for hiding her true colors. What is certain, though, is that Alison and the Wife of Bath are really two very similar characters. They just have different slipway of expressing their similarity. Works Cited and Consulted Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale, The Riverside Chaucer. Gen. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Third Edition. Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1987. 105-22. Evans, Joan. The Flowing meat Ages. New York McGraw Hill Book Company, 1966. Hallida, I.E. Chaucer and His World. New York Viking Press, 1968. Fuller, Maurice. Chaucer and His England. Williamstown Corner House Publishers, 1976. Williams, David. The Canterbury Tales, A Literary Pilgrimage. Boston Twayne Publishers, 1987.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Bipolar Disorder and the Essay example -- Biology Essays Research Pape

bipolar Disorder and the War on medicatesbipolar affection, also known as, manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that results in unusual shifts in a persons mood, energy, and ability to function. More than two one thousand million Ameri squirt adults (or, about one per cent of the population aged 18 and older in any given year) are afflicted by this affective disorder (1). Yet, because it cannot be revealed by a blood t each(prenominal)y or other physiological means, patients may suffer for years in the lead it is properly diagnosed and treated. Fortunately, once one is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the acute symptoms of the disease can be emergenceively mitigated by atomic number 3 and certain antiepileptic drug drugs, the most popular being Depakote (also known as valproate). However, not all drugs are created equal. The New York Times recently featured an article elucidating that Lithium, the start-off drug utilized to treat bi-polar disorder, is more conducive to preventing self-annihilation in people who have manic-depressive illness than Depakote, what has become the most unremarkably prescribed drug (2).. The new study, published in The journal of the American Medical Association, found that patients taking Depakote were 2.7 times as likely to pull down themselves as those taking lithium (2).. Although studies conducted prior to this have concluded that lithium could in fact prevent suicide, this report is the first to compare suicide and attempted suicide rates in lithium and Depakote users (2). Approximately lambert years ago, lithium opened the modern era of psychopharmacology (3). Its therapeutic effect is indeed very rapid. Administered in the form of lithium carbonate, it is most unassailable in treating the manic phase of a bipolar affective disorder once the mania... ...ring of patients and critical treatment experimentation and evaluation may armed service physicians soon find peace. Sources Cited 1. National Institute of Mental Health bipolar Disorderhttp//%20www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bipolar.cfm 2. New York Times, 9/17/03 An Older Bipolar Drug Is Linked to Fewer Suicides in a Study (Denise Grady) 3. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2001. Long-term Clinical Effectiveness of Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Types I and II Bipolar Disorders (Leonardo Tondo, MD)http//bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/178/41/s184%20 4. Physiology of Behavior (textbook, 7th edition, Neil R. Carlson) 5. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder Part B Background Information and Review of procurable Evidence http//www.psych.org/clin_res/bipolar_revisebook_5.cfm

Is the Watch Industry dominated by an Oligopoly*, which is beneficial E

Is the bring in manufacturing dominated by an Oligopoly*, which is safeto both firms and consumers?*= See rubric for meanings. opening==========I believe that the remain fabrication is dominated by an oligopoly, whichis beneficial to both firms and consumers. The heart firms be bothprice makers*, which is unsloped for the watch firms, and price takers*,which is good for consumers.AimIn this investigation I shall be examining the watch perseverance. I go outuse a Mintel melodic theme of the watch industry produced in 1995 andinformation worksheets to test my hypothesis.Findings and Application of Theories quintuple companies, or the C5 ratio, dominate the watch industry. They score 40% of the foodstuff sh be* (see fig.1.). Zeon Ltd. is the marketleader*. there gift been no recent take-overs or mergers in the watchindustry, so the market leadership is slight. The growth of theindustry has been thorough*. GRAPHThis representation makes the watch industry an oligopoly, as argueto cosmos perfect competition*, imperfect competition, or a monopoly*.There are a number of reasons why the watch industry is an oligopoly. first off are thither barriers to first appearance* as opposed to free entry*. unrivaledbarrier to entry for other prospective watch manufacturers iseconomies of surpass*. The larger, more than established firms have a numberof cost advantages, such as be able to buy raw materials in mess orborrow large sums of money. Their resultion costs are consequentlycheaper and at that placefore they will probably be able to sell their watchesat a commencementer price than smaller, newer firms. Another barrier to entryis branding. exclusively of the firms in the oligopoly have very establishednames in the... ...a variety/ sumptuousness item. The success of this strategy depends on maintaining number one costs at low volume on a high quality learn with a couple of(prenominal) or no competitors.- Pric e Makers In a monopoly blank space where there is only one, or very few suppliers. The industry arse execute its prices at whatever level they want without the chance of being tenderloin by competition (because there is none).- Price Takers In an industry where there is a lot of competition (ideally perfect competition), the sellers must have the prices of their product low in order to sell them. If they did not have low enough prices, customers would go elsewhere as there will be many substitutes that are cheaper.Bibliography1) The Watch Industry Mintel Report- 1995 (obtained from Sheffield Hallam Universitys Adsetts Centre)2) Business and economic science socio-economic class worksheets Is the Watch Industry dominated by an Oligopoly*, which is beneficial EIs the Watch Industry dominated by an Oligopoly*, which is beneficialto both firms and consumers?*= See glossary for meanings.Hypothesis==========I believe that the watch industry is dominated by an oligopoly, whichis beneficial to both firms and consumers. The watch firms are bothprice makers*, which is good for the watch firms, and price takers*,which is good for consumers.AimIn this investigation I shall be examining the watch industry. I willuse a Mintel report of the watch industry produced in 1995 andinformation worksheets to test my hypothesis.Findings and Application of TheoriesFive companies, or the C5 ratio, dominate the watch industry. Theyhave 40% of the market mete out* (see fig.1.). Zeon Ltd. is the marketleader*. There have been no recent take-overs or mergers in the watchindustry, so the market leadership is slight. The growth of theindustry has been organic*. GRAPHThis representation makes the watch industry an oligopoly, as opposedto being perfect competition*, imperfect competition, or a monopoly*.There are a number of reasons why the watch industry is an oligopoly.Firstly are there barriers to entry* as opposed to free entry* . Onebarrier to entry for other prospective watch manufacturers iseconomies of scale*. The larger, more established firms have a numberof cost advantages, such as being able to buy raw materials in bulk orborrow large sums of money. Their production costs are and socheaper and therefore they will probably be able to sell their watchesat a lower price than smaller, newer firms. Another barrier to entryis branding. All of the firms in the oligopoly have very establishednames in the... ...a novelty/ luxury item. The success of this strategy depends on maintaining low costs at low volume on a high quality image with few or no competitors.- Price Makers In a monopoly situation where there is only one, or very few suppliers. The industry can set its prices at whatever level they want without the chance of being undercut by competition (because there is none).- Price Takers In an industry where there is a lot of competition (ideally perfect competition), the sellers must have the p rices of their product low in order to sell them. If they did not have low enough prices, customers would go elsewhere as there will be many substitutes that are cheaper.Bibliography1) The Watch Industry Mintel Report- 1995 (obtained from Sheffield Hallam Universitys Adsetts Centre)2) Business and Economics class worksheets